ARCHAEOLOGY HOMEPAGE
SECTION 1 : Introduction
SECTION 2 : Multi-period sites
SECTION 3 : Mesolithic
SECTION 4 : Neolithic Settlement
SECTION 5 : Megalithic tombs and Neolithic burial practices
SECTION 6 : Bronze Age Occupation Sites
SECTION 7 : Bronze Age burial practices
SECTION 8 : Iron Age
SECTION 9 : Iron Age burial practices
SECTION 10 : Royal sites
SECTION 11 : Western stone forts
SECTION 12 : Early Medieval Period - Christianity
SECTION 13 : Ringforts
SECTION 14 : Crannógs
SECTION 15 : Medieval Dublin
SECTION 16 : Late Medieval Period
SECTION 17 : Anglo-Norman Towns
SECTION 18 : Anglo-Norman Fortifications
Acknowledgements

SECTION 4 : NEOLITHIC

The Neolithic (c. 4600-2500B.C.) saw the transition of the early settlers from a hunter-gatherer life-style to a farming way of life, where livestock rearing and cereal cultivation dominated the economy. The population may also have been augmented by the introduction of new peoples. Forest clearance, field systems, more permanent and substantial settlement sites and houses, a preoccupation with the afterlife/remains of the dead, megalithic tomb-building and a more complex and structured social hierarchy are all characteristics of the Neolithic period in Ireland.

The settlement sites at Tankardstown, Co. Limerick and Newtown Co. Meath provided well-preserved examples of the rectangular Neolithic house type, while Belderg Beg, Co. Mayo had evidence for an enclosure with an internal circular structure. Evidence for agriculture is primarily provided by finds of domesticated animals and plants, new stone tool technologies, and the introduction of pottery. Excavations at Belderg Beg and Carrownalough, Co. Mayo have also elucidated the layout of field systems and imprints of early tillage are also detectable. The use of polished stone axes continued from the Mesolithic into the Neolithic and the discovery of an axe factory at Lambay Island, Co. Dublin provides an extensive insight into the manufacturing techniques behind these tools and the importance they held.

4.1 : Newtown, Co. Meath E633

Site location: NGR 27510/28900

Margaret Gowen and Eoin Halpin

Fig. 4.1.1: Location map of Newtown, Co. Meath [OSI]

The site is located on a relatively level shoulder of grassland close to a stream on the north facing side of a gently sloping hill (Fig. 4.1.1). It was discovered during archaeological monitoring during construction phase of the Bord Gáis Eireann North-Eastern Pipeline and was excavated over one season in Autumn/Winter of 1991. The main phases of activity were Neolithic and Bronze Age.

Excavation uncovered a Neolithic house dated to 3971-3706 Cal. BC and 3936-3697 Cal. BC and associated ancillary structure to the east. The house (Fig 4.1.2) was rectangular in plan and possibly up to 12m in length. The house foundations (Plate 4.1.1) were well-preserved and consisted of stone and soil filled slot trenches. The south wall of the east room was of post and plank method of construction.

Plate 4.1.1 View of site from east, Newtown, Co. Meath
[Margaret Gowen]

The house was divided internally into two rooms. The doorway was located in the northern end of the east wall. Access from this room to the western room was through an internal doorway defined by a pair of opposing post-holes. The western room was partially destroyed. There was no surviving evidence that the west end of the house was ever enclosed. Three post-holes down the middle of the eastern room held uprights to support the central roof beam. Sherds of Neolithic pottery were recovered from the internal door post-holes and small patches of charcoal rich soil were found around the doorway.

The eastern room had a ‘roasting pit’ with a mixture of charcoal-rich soil and heat-cracked stones and a fragment of a Neolithic pot was also retrieved. A number of stake-holes in this area were interpreted as the basal remains of hearth-side furniture, such as a spit. The only evidence for a possible hearth was an area of oxidised soil close to the southern wall. There is a slight possibility that the ‘roasting pit’ was a secondary feature.

The western side of a possible second structure defined by a gully was located 4m to the south-east of the Neolithic house. No undisturbed occupation levels survived. The gully fill was fine grey silty clay that suggested it may have been a drip gully or a simple construction gully. A high concentration of imported stone, possibly forming a surface was recorded 2m to the north of the gully. Prehistoric pottery and charcoal concentrations were found here possibly indicating that the stone surface was in contemporary with the Neolithic house.

The Bronze Age activity was represented by a small circular pit with a small Vase Urn, in the eastern room of the Neolithic house, close to the doorway and associated with an arc of post-holes.

This site offers further insight into house types and settlement among early farmers in Ireland. It was also an example of the change in use of a structure from domestic to funerary, which can be paralleled with Tankardstown, Co. Limerick.

References

Halpin, E.  1992   ‘Newtown’, In I. Bennett (ed.), Excavations 1991. Wordwell Ltd., Bray. 37-39.

Halpin, E.  1995   ‘Excavations at Newtown, Co. Meath’, In E. Grogan and C. Mount (eds),  Annus Archaeologiae: Proceedings of the OIA Winter Conference 1993. OPW, Dublin. 45-54.

Gowen, M and Halpin, E.  1992   ‘A Neolithic House at Newtown’, Archaeology Ireland 6.2. 25-27.

4.2 : Tankardstown, Co Limerick E372

Site location: NGR 15840/12820            SMR LI 047-01201-02

Margaret Gowen and Christine Tarbert

Fig. 4.2.1: Location map of Tankardstown, Co.Limerick [OSI]

This site was located at the top of a gentle south-west facing slope towards the Loobagh river, 1½ miles north-west of Kilmallock, Co. Limerick (Fig. 4.2.1). The excavation was completed over three seasons from 1987-89 and funded on the recommendation National Committee for Archaeology of the Royal Irish Academy. The aim was to find further Neolithic activity in the vicinity of House 1 (Fig. 4.2.2; Plate 4.2.1) excavated in 1986 during the Limerick gas pipeline construction (Gowen 1988).

Fig.4.2.2: Reconstruction of Neolithic house, Tankardstown [Margaret Gowen]

Plate 4.2.1: Foundation trench of Neolithic house, Tankardstown, Co. Limerick
[Margaret Gowen}

Two small cuttings at either end of House 1 were opened and confirmed there was no annexe to the previously excavated house (ibid.). A second cutting uncovered an earth-cut pit, c.2m from the western end of House 1. The pit fill included charred oat grains and is considered to be of early historic date.

Evidence for a second house was located c.20m north-west of House 1. A foundation trench represented a structure with an annexe and the maximum dimensions were 15.20m by 7.40m. The foundation trench was generally c.5m wide and 0.40-0.45m deep. The foundation trench fill contained burnt material including in situ timbers and packing boulders. Western Neolithic pottery and flint tools were recovered from the fill. The south-western corner had been truncated by a linear medieval ditch. The internal layout of the house comprised a large central area, measuring 7.50m by 7.50m with two roof support posts and two narrow annexes at either end. The western internal annexe foundation slot trench contained the remains of charred vertical posts. The external wall of the eastern annexe was defined by large corner post-holes and a short slot trench. Construction backfill, that was unburnt, at the east end of the house suggested that the trench was first excavated and then immediately backfilled in those portions in which no timbers were to be set. No in situ occupation levels survived in House 2 except as features cut into subsoil. Some of the internal burnt soils were interpreted as a line of disturbed internal post-holes.

A very short gully south of the foundation trench in the south-eastern quadrant was Neolithic in date but its function and relationship to the house is uncertain. A shallow ditch with a small quantity of Neolithic pottery was located in the cutting between the houses. A pit, containing two broken upright undecorated Bronze Age pots, each with a cremation, was found 0.30m from the eastern trench in the interior of House 2.

A portion of ring-ditch, cutting across the western half of the house, was also investigated. The arc of the ring ditch cut through the Neolithic house foundation trench and other pre-ditch deposits possibly relating to house occupation. The ring-ditch was c.12-15m in diameter and surrounded a cremation pit with two coarse undecorated pots, both upright with one inside the other. A ditch/gully feature may also relate to this Bronze Age ring-ditch. Another linear feature at the east of the site, cut across the excavated area. A second ring-ditch, inside the first, was uncovered at the eastern side of the central compartment and had an external diameter of c.5m. This second, inner ring-ditch did not produce any finds. Work on the outer ring-ditch revealed both Neolithic and Bronze Age features.

Finds included a range of Neolithic pottery, a type of coarse ware pottery, flint debitage, flakes, quartz chips, roughly fashioned scrapers, a portion of a polished stone axe, some animal bone and a number of medieval pottery sherds. Radiocarbon dates of 4995+/-20 BP and 5070+/-20 BP were returned.

This was an important Neolithic settlement site as there was quite good preservation which resulted in a number of radiocarbon dates and important environmental and structural evidence. The continuation of the use of the site into the Bronze Age is also interesting as the function changed from settlement to funerary.

References

Gowen, M. 1988 Three Irish Gas Pipelines: New Archaeological Evidence in Munster. Wordwell Ltd. Dublin. 26-43.

Gowen, M. and Tarbett, C.  1988  ‘Tankardstown South, Co. Limerick’, In I. Bennett (ed.) Excavations 1987. Wordwell Ltd. Bray, 21.

Gowen, M. and Tarbett, C. 1989  ‘Tankardstown South, Co. Limerick’,  In I. Bennett (ed.),  Excavations 1988. Wordwell Ltd. Bray, 24-26.

Gowen, M. and Tarbett, C.  1990  ‘Tankardstown South, Co. Limerick’, In I. Bennett (ed.), Excavations 1989. Wordwell Ltd. Bray, 38-39.

Gowen, M. and Tarbett, C.  1988  ‘A third season at Tankardstown’,  Archaeology Ireland 2(4), 156.

4.3 : Belderg Beg, Co. Mayo E109

Site location: NGR 28098/27434

Seamus Caulfield*

Fig.4.3.1: Location map of Belderg, Co. Mayo [OSI]

The site is located in North Mayo, 7km west of the Céide Fields, within an area of intense peatland bog (Fig. 4.3.1). It consisted of a series of pre-bog stone walls which form small irregular fields and a circular enclosure. Radiocarbon dates from pine and oak trees, which grew in a layer of peat immediately preceding the formation of the blanket bog date the field system to pre the third millennium B.C. The excavations were carried out over a series of short seasons between 1971 and 1982.

The excavation investigated half the circular earthwork, 9m in diameter and a round house inside the enclosing bank (Plate 4.3.1). The structural elements of the round house were posts marked by a concentric ring of post-holes. Stone filled pits, one of which contained flecks of bone were also found. Several fragments of saddle querns were recovered along with a heat-shattered flint implement and a polished stone disc. The quantity of charcoal found, especially within the post-holes suggests the structure was burnt down.

Plate 4.3.1: General view, Bronze Age house, Belderg, Co. Mayo
[UCC Collection]

Evidence for a second period of habitation was also revealed in the form of a wall built on peat with stones robbed from the earlier pre-bog wall. It ran to the south for 70m and the oak posts associated with the final 40m of the wall continued independently for a further 50m. A trench with upcast was also uncovered and sherds of a broken pottery vessel were found nearby but not directly associated with it.

A charcoal spread with hazelnut shells, some broken flint scrapers and sherds of pottery was located at the extreme northern end of the site. A cutting within the boundary of the stone walls at the extreme southern end of the site revealed a very stony area that contained sherds of pottery with sharply-angular quartz grit, similar to pottery from the Glenulra enclosure.

Evidence for prehistoric tillage, in the form of cross-ploughing marks, came from beside the circular enclosure. A series of ridges and furrows indicating subsequent spade cultivation was recorded above the plough marks. It appeared that the ploughing and stone clearance from the tillage plots pre-dated the round house. Tillage continued after the house was built as the trench near the ridges was filled with a disturbed soil which suggests digging close by.

The site is dated to the Neolithic and Bronze Age periods by the pottery and a series of radiocarbon dates ranging from 2540-500 Cal. BC. The Neolithic date for the plough marks is the earliest known evidence for the use of a plough in Europe. The second phase of occupation on a poor agricultural site already covered in bog probably occurred in the Bronze Age in order to mine the rich vein of copper ore in the cliff face one mile to the north-west. A wedge-tomb, located ¾ of a mile east of the site already indicates Bronze Age activity in the Belderrig valley.

References

Caulfield, S.  1972  ‘Beldergbeg’, In T. G. Delaney (ed.), Excavations 1972. 22-3. Association of Young Irish Archaeologists and Ulster Archaeological Society.

Caulfield, S.  1973  ‘Beldergbeg’, In T. G. Delaney (ed.), Excavations 1973. 17-18. Association of Young Irish Archaeologists, Ulster Archaeological Society and Group for the Study of Irish Historic Settlement.

Caulfield, S.  1974  ‘Beldergbeg’, In T. G. Delaney (ed.), Excavations 1974. 24. Association of Young Irish Archaeologists, Ulster Archaeological Society and Group for the Study of Irish Historic Settlement.

Caulfield, S.  1976  ‘Beldergbeg’, In T. G. Delaney (ed.), Excavations 1975-76. 15. Association of Young Irish Archaeologists, Ulster Archaeological Society and Group for the Study of Irish Historic Settlement.

Caulfield, S.  1977  ‘Beldergbeg’, In T. G. Delaney (ed.), Excavations 1977. 34. Association of Young Irish Archaeologists, Ulster Archaeological Society and Group for the Study of Irish Historic Settlement.

Waddell, J.1998, The Prehistoric Archaeologyof Ireland. Galway University Press. Galway. 38.

4.4 : Carrownaglogh, Co. Mayo E769

Site location: NGR 1360/31900

Michael Herity*

Fig. 4.4.1: Location map of Carrownaglogh, Co. Mayo [OSI]

This site was located close to the eastern boundary of County Mayo in a small area of bog (Fig. 4.4.1). The excavation furthered the knowledge on prehistoric field systems and associated cultivation practices. The excavation was completed a series of short seasons between 1970 and 1982.

An area of 252m2 of bog was dug away to reveal a stone-built structure used before the peat began to grow at about 1000BC. A series of field walls enclosing at least three separate fields were investigated. A flint knife was found associated with these field walls in 1963. The complete outline of a field, c.15000m2 was recorded with traces of field-clearance indicating tillage. Evidence for ridge and furrow cultivation was also discovered underneath blanket bog. Cereal pollen was recovered from one of the ridges. The main cultivation pattern was parallel ridges running roughly east-west across the hill slope. To north and south of this central band of cultivation, shorter ridges extended at right angles in a roughly north-south direction. At the upper northern end, the ridges terminated under field wall tumble whereas at the lower end the ridges ended in a distinct edge c.1.50m from the wall, indicating this field wall was in existence when the ridges were made. Several heaps of stones, interpreted as clearance-heaps were found throughout this cultivated area. An opening at the southern end of the central area, between two sections of the wall was originally interpreted as an entrance but was found to be covered with ridge cultivation. A criss-cross ridge pattern in part of it is interpreted as two phases of cultivation.

A second site, one mile away in the same townland, revealed a roughly oval heap of stones enclosing a small hollow.

References

Herity, M. 1970  ‘Carrownaglogh Td.’, In T. G. Delaney (ed.), Excavations 1970. Association of Young Irish Archaeologists and Ulster Archaeological Society. 14.

Herity, M. 1971  ‘Carrownaglogh’, In T. G. Delaney (ed.), Excavations 1971. Association of Young Irish Archaeologists and Ulster Archaeological Society. 20.

Herity, M. 1972   ‘Carrownaglogh’, In T. G. Delaney (ed.), Excavations 1972. Association of Young Irish Archaeologists, Ulster Archaeological Society and Group for the Study of Irish Historic Settlement. 23.

Herity, M. 1973  ‘Carrownaglogh’, In T. G. Delaney (ed.), Excavations 1973. Association of Young Irish Archaeologists, Ulster Archaeological Society and Group for the Study of Irish Historic Settlement. 18.

Herity, M. 1976  ‘Carrownaglogh’, In T. G. Delaney (ed.)’ Excavations 1975-6. Association of Young Irish Archaeologists, Ulster Archaeological Society and Group for the Study of Irish Historic Settlement. 15.

Herity, M. 1988  ‘Carrownaglogh’, In C. Manning and D. Hurl (eds), ‘Excavations Bulletin 1977-1979’  The Journal of Irish Archaeology. 4. 87-8.

4.5 : Lambay Island, Co. Dublin 93E0144

Site location: NGR: 33150/25050            SMR: DU009-001---

Gabriel Cooney*

Fig. 4.5.1: Location map of Lambay Island, Co. Dublin [OSI]

Introduction

The site is situated in a valley close to the western edge of the eastern upland area of Lambay Island, off the east coast of County Dublin (Fig. 4.5.1; Plate 4.5.1). Work at Lambay Island was undertaken as part of the Irish Stone Axe Project and continued for many seasons of varying in length (from two weeks to two months) from 1993-2001. The purpose of the initial excavation was to search for evidence of the working of porphyritic andesite (porphyry) for stone axe production. The project proved successful in identifying a unique axe production site on Lambay Island. It has confirmed the extraction of porphyry for axe production using a pecking and hammering technique and has produced evidence of grinding and polishing of axe rough-outs at the place of production. This excavation has also identified a tradition of deliberate placement of Neolithic pottery, worked flint and porphyry debitage into sealed pits.

Plate 4.5.1: Aerial view of Lambay Island, Co. Dublin
[Gabriel Cooney]

Two cuttings (1 and 2), one on each side of the valley, next to an outcrop of porphyry were opened in the initial season of excavation (Plate 4.5.2). Cutting 2 produced a flint leaf-shaped arrowhead and a chip of struck flint among small pieces of porphyry. The underlying bedrock surface had indentations indicating it had been worked.

Plate 4.5.2: Section through rock outcrop, Lambay Island, Co. Dublin
[Gabriel Cooney]

Cutting 1, 1W and 4

Cutting 1 exposed a few hundred flint flakes and porphyry debitage lying on and around a setting of sandstone slabs, and a number of hammerstones that were used to strike the flint. Concave and hollow scrapers indicate a Neolithic date for this material. A distinct working surface was associated with the working of the porphyry and porphyry blocks had been placed there and potential roughouts for up to 15 axeheads were recovered. A sandstone adze head was discovered in a disturbed context to the south.

Excavation also revealed that the sandstone setting, set in a loamy soil matrix, in turn overlay a second surface of porphyry debitage. A sealed flint knapping cluster that occurred against the base of the rock face dates this activity to the Neolithic. Underlying this again was a sealed quartz-knapping cluster.

In the south-west corner of the cutting, a sandstone grinding slab and three polishing slabs of porphyry were discovered in situ, resting directly on a spread of Neolithic pottery. A dolerite ground stone axe and a porphyry polished stone axe was also recovered. Cutting 1 was later extended to the south-west to open Cuttings 1W and 4. Cutting 1W revealed nineteenth century agricultural disturbance, overlying a mass of porphyry. Three polishing slabs were recorded beneath the sandstone grinding slab and two distinct layers of porphyritic andesite pieces, the lower of which was set into the subsoil underlay the spread of decorated Neolithic pottery (found 1995). Struck flint, hammerstones, cobbles, sandstone rubbers and a broken polished porphyry axe were found throughout. Layers of porphyritic andesite were also revealed Cutting 4. A large cache of Neolithic flint flakes and blades were uncovered. In 1997 Cutting 1/1W was completed with the dominant feature being the build-up of different layers of porphyritic andesite debitage with lithic material associated with the working of the rock and other materials. This extended into Cutting 4. Here basal slabs appeared to have been deliberately placed to level the ground surface.

The Valley Floor (Testpits 1-5, Cutting 3, 5-11, 14-21)

When Cutting 1 was extended to the south it was discovered that the porphyry build up had been disturbed in parts by modern agricultural furrows. The valley floor was then exposed to determine the full extent of modern agricultural disturbance. All the test pits displayed agricultural disturbance as well as finds of worked flint. Disturbance of Neolithic features was however, also evident in Test Pit 2. Here sherds of a decorated Neolithic pot were discovered overlying a truncated feature, cut into the subsoil. Pieces of porphyry, a flint core, a broken sandstone rubber, a granite hammerstone and a sherd of a Carrowkeel pot were deposited in another pit fill, displaying a deliberate layered deposition within in the pit. The extent of the pit was 1.2m X 1m and a very deliberately placed complex arrangement of stones was revealed at the western half of this feature.

A large roughly circular spread of stones was uncovered in Cutting 3, west of Test Pit 2 and below this was a large stone-filled pit. The pit contained deliberately placed deposits of stone, with the earliest deposit also containing cremated bone, charcoal, flint chips and Carrowkeel sherds. Cutting 5 was opened to the north-west of Cutting 3 and later extended to the north-east (Cutting 6). Neolithic activity was uncovered albeit with in no obvious pattern. Some fragments of porphyritic andesite with ground surfaces were recovered at a low level. Two truncated shallow trenches and pit features were also discovered, along with three distinct stone concentrations. In the 1997 season Cutting 5 and Cutting 3 were extended and Cutting 7 was opened to the east and Cutting 8 to the south-east. Again truncated features of Neolithic date were revealed. At least seven large pits filled with porphyry debitage and other cultural material was identified. Cuttings 9 and 10 were opened to obtain a cross-section of the sequence of archaeological deposits in the valley.

In the 1998 season a distinct difference in the stratigraphy was recognisable. The western part of the excavation revealed a thin interface between the cultivation soil and the underlying subsoil, possibly representing disturbance/truncation and the eastern part appeared to be the surviving portion of the palaeosoil. A second series of test pits were also explored at this stage, all with similar stratigraphy. Test Pit 13 yielded Neolithic pottery and a large projectile point or javelinhead suggesting that the southern end of the valley was the main focus of Neolithic activity. The basal layer of the porphyritic andesite pieces was excavated in Cuttings 4, 9 and 10. A slab-lined pit with a large stone on top along with another possible pit was also uncovered in Cutting 4. Test Pits 14-21 were dug to test the stratigraphy and porphyritic andesite build-up along the bank abutting the wet-facing outcrop, to the north and south of Cutting 1. In Cutting 11 a number of layers/contexts representing episodes of quarrying and production were revealed. Sherds of a carinated bowl (Western Neolithic) were recovered from this cutting. One radiocarbon date returned for a sample of charcoal from pit was 3965-3383 Cal BC.

Subsequently the area of the valley floor, previously interpreted as a Neolithic occupation surface, was reinterpreted as a low monument with a number of distinct zones recognisable on the surface, covering earlier features and incorporating others. The 2000 excavation was again focused on this area and uncovered a series of stone features and depositional activities. To the NW a concentration of finds was discovered among a thick lens of beach pebbles, including a fragment of an Orcadian-type macehead. A dense spread of flint, some jasper pebbles and hammerstones was recorded at the lower layer of this lens. A large feature that was cut into the original soil surface and whose sides were formed by porphyry slabs contained a polygonal slab setting. To the east of the slab setting was a hoard of deliberately deposited objects, including a complete unfinished Orcadian macehead, a group of axeheads and flint flakes.

A concentration of large porphyry and andesite blocks was located south of the NW area. South of this again, an area of smaller porphyry blocks overlay a beach-pebbled cobbled surface. To the SE lay a surface of beach gravel and another large porphyry block that appears to have chock stones beneath it, set in a dense surface of porphyry pieces. This surface sealed a shallow pit, filled mainly by beach pebbles, flint, porphyry chips and a fragment of a broken jasper pendant. It is thought that this setting was deliberately placed to mark the earlier activity.

A spread of both struck and un-struck flint in the E and NE overlay a dense mass of stones. A circular surface consisting of roughly concentric settings of stone and finds including an axe fragment and pottery sherds underlay the stone mass. A series of pits were recorded to the north of this feature, beneath the stone spread. Three other small pits also had pottery sherds within their fills. Excavation also revealed a trench running N-S in this area.

Small Valley-west of main Valley (Test Pits 6-9)

In 1997 Test Pits 6-9 were opened to test the stratigraphy in the small valley to the west of the main valley. A high proportion of ground and polished pieces of porphyritic andesite were revealed against a rock outcrop.  The 1999 excavation investigated this area further and revealed that quarrying of the porphyry here was concentrated on the lower area of the west-facing outcrop, associated with debitage, sherds of Early Neolithic carinated bowls and struck flint.

References

Cooney, G. 1994  ‘Lambay Island’, In I. Bennett (ed.), Excavations 1993. Wordwell Ltd. Bray. 34-35

Cooney, G. 1995  ‘Lambay Island’ In I. Bennett (ed.), Excavations 1994. Wordwell Ltd. Bray.

Cooney, G. 1996  ‘Lambay Island’ In I. Bennett (ed.), Excavations 1995. Wordwell Ltd. Bray.

Cooney, G. 1997  ‘Lambay Island’ In I. Bennett (ed.), Excavations 1996. Wordwell Ltd. Bray.

Cooney, G. 1998  ‘Lambay Island’ In I. Bennett (ed.), Excavations 1997. Wordwell Ltd. Bray.

Cooney, G. 1999  ‘Lambay Island’ In I. Bennett (ed.), Excavations 1998. Wordwell Ltd. Bray.

Cooney, G. 2000  ‘Lambay Island’ In I. Bennett (ed.), Excavations 1999. Wordwell Ltd. Bray.

Cooney, G. 2001  ‘Lambay Island’ In I. Bennett (ed.), Excavations 2000. Wordwell Ltd. Bray.

http://www.ucd.ie/~archdata/external/research/stone_axe_project/index.html
4.1 : Newtown, Co. Meath E633
4.2 : Tankardstown, Co Limerick E372
4.3 : Belderg Beg, Co. Mayo E109
4.4 : Carrownaglogh, Co. Mayo E769
4.5 : Lambay Island, Co. Dublin 93E0144